Ken Dash from FOBH sent this snippet.
Checking in the archives library on Monday I came across an account where there was a count of heads of households in the 1571 Easter Book. It gave 172 male heads of households which the article multiplied by 4.68 to get an idea of the real number of people. This came to 805 people. There were 20 uxores [I don’t know what an uxore is], 4 female heads of households, 1 brother and sister and one mother and son; an estimated total for the township of Sheffield of 833. So we had a tiny town with the 4th largest castle in England at its centre.
The reference is: David Postles  An early modern town: Sheffield in the sixteenth century Local History no. 25 p61-67.